Psychology of Learning TheoriesCognitive Approaches
In addition to roues in developmental psychology, career counseling and development has roots in developmental psychology and has ties to cognitive psychology. Van Hester and Ivey 1990) at the cognitive viewpoint in their work as the following

The theoretical orientation bringing this group other is grounded in the belief that each person constructs his or her thoughts, meanings in a unique fashion over time.

Within this perspective, personal develop mental history OCT the life span is assumed to deeply influence how the individual for family community makes sense of experience and how meaning

Huffman and Nead (1983) advocate a general contextual approach in the cognitive sciences. As this approach is translated to the field of career Counseling and development, counselors need to focus on the total counseling sequence in which the client is involved.

We have to look at the situational demands, the characteristics of the client and counselor, developmental perspectives, contextual aspects, family, community, group membership, the counseling intervention, and the purposes of the client.

The contextual approach requires careful analysis of environmental influences and their impact on client behavior.Psychology of Learning Theories

Cognitive Models

Knctelkemp and Slepicza (1976) propose a cognitive developmental model of career development. The theory emphasizes the cognitive processing that takes place as individual’s develop. They include four stars in their model

Dualism-Students think that there is only one right career Multiplicity Students recognize that they are capable of entering several career fields

Relativism Individuals move from an external focus of control to a more internal focus of control. They now recognize that they are the ones responsible for making their decisions but are not just ready to

Relativism with commitment Students become concerned about their identity and making a commitment

Decision Making

Tiedeman and O’Hara (19631 have postulated a vocational decision-making model of career development. They note that career development grows out of a continuous initiating and reintegrating of Eco identity as it forms and reforms from experience. It is influenced by an individual’s early childhood expertness with the family unit, the resolution of psycho social crises, and the consistency between social values and ideas and those of the individual

They propose a two-stage decision-making process anticipation and implementation. Each of the stages has several phase. The four steps of anticipation or preoccupation are exploration awareness, crystallization of something choice felt being, and clarification objectification.

The implementation stap has the Formation, and reintegration Tiedeman and Miller-Sideman (1984) illustrate the process by a counselor who is feeling burned out and is exploring me job possibilities.

Talking with people Visiting potential workplaces Conducting information interviews Reading everything available on possibilities Thinking about new places to live Crystallization Sewing patterns evolve in form of alternatives and their consequences, ordering and considering the information
Making a choice from the alternatives Clarification Organizing and clarifying the decisionPsychology of Learning Theories

Beginning to work at choice Reformation Focline about doing it Getting proficient at the work Reine Advocating the choice
They consider the seven steps in their decision-making process as neither instantaneous nor irreversible.

They postulate that career development occurs not only with a decision but also as the result of many decisions and that how remake decisions in their actions in decisions they are recently making of making in the future, or have made in the past

They find that individuals are presented with these change poses their life that present them with problems to be s a part time while in school and afterward selecting which school electing a technical school electing their in time

Thema’s theory has curriculum materials to help individuals in decision making for a Tiedeman developed a padom in leading clients through problem solving This paradigm includes anti to exploration, crystal list choice and clarification and alum induction, reformation and integration. Suggested interpretations are provided for each sage of the paradigm, for example choice care al is chosen and behavior to attain the located.

There are other decision-making models Gallant 1961 has a model that takes into consideration the cyclical nature of decision making. He considers decision making as from immediate to intermediate to future decisions

Social Learning Theory

Helmholtz Mitchell and Gelat 1975) developed a theory of career choice bused on social learning theory. The theory emphasizes our factorenetic endow memes and special abilities, cimetal conditions and events, learning en rices, and ask approach skills.

The theory also draws on cognitive learning theory and looks at the role of cognitive processes such as problem solving and individual learning experience over their life spun development have a direct intense on their actionable and career selection, especially their learning through observation of models and other direct experiences Career decision making is a product of the individual’s learning

Career-education program, instruction in decision making and the counselor’s role are important in this approach

Clients need help in care decision making decisions based on fly bets and escalations and actions. They de now the leaves and approaches that they have used in approaches

CONTEXTUAL MODEL OF CAREER COUNSELING

there development in the use of the process and information in Peter Sampson, & Reade, 19911. Counselors can apply themedel in one 12 to develop a counseling s for clients with don’t care needs

The model illustrates a framework to review the career counseling process and implement a plan for human growth. The first step is the identification of the problem. A client might state a variety of problems ranging from the complex to the simple.Psychology of Learning Theories

The problems might be psychological as well as career problems, and the state problem might not be the real problem. In any event, the counselor needs to have a clear understanding of the problem or problems of the
The second step is to identify the salient characteristics of the client. characteristics of the individual that might influence the strategy and types of intervention to be used are age, gender, cultural background, role salience, values cognitive level, sci-concept, work history, personality traits and types, motivation, needs, learning Myles, and employment status.

The counselor mast know not only the stages of cognitive, psychological, and career development of the client, but also the important life experiences that have shaped the individual’s perceptions and attitudes. Niemeyer Prichard, Berbonsky, and Metzler (1991) stated that client’s characteristic way of appeasing problems influences their vocational exploration

The third step requires the counselor to identify the important context variable. Variables to be considered are labor market information, local regional, and state employment trends, educational and training programs available, as well as socioeconomic level of the community, environmental and climatic, and type of opportunities available in the community. The counselor to be with the endures and institutions in the region.

The problem might relate to job enrichment, job redefinition, or person-environment fit as it relates to career planning.
The fourth step involves the selection of the most

appropriate counseling strategy or intervention. The previous three steps influence what takes place in this step, and counselors have a wide range of theories and practices that are appropriate for career counseling. They also have a wide variety of sources of information available to them. For example, continuing educational opportunities, interaction with colleagues, and professional literature provide a variety of approaches and successful practices.

The spectrum covers counselor-free, computer-assisted counseling approaches to counselor-led interventions

The fifth step is in the information from the previous steps to implement a counseling plan. The sixth step is evaluation, which can be used in each step of the process not only in determining whether the intervention brought about the desired outcomes but also whether the counselor identified the real problem.

Other questions that can be answered are as follows:
Did the counselor identify the salient characteristics of the client

Did the counselor identify the important context variables? What was the client’s perspective of the counseling What cognitive processes were used? Were they effective? Was a plan of career action implemented.

Language and BehaviorPsychology of Learning Theories

The ultimate goal of the career Counseling intervention is to develop or change the behavior of clients so they accomplish the goals speed on by them and their counselor Clients are guided to act on the basis of the intervention.

For example, the self language needs to be changed for some people from “I can’t do any thing right to “I can do what I set out to do.” Clients might have a surface knowledge of what to do, say, and behave in an interview session but now have to practice through role-playing interview situations so that the behavior becomes natural. If the client has irrational beliefs, thought processes, or decision making skills, more appropriate cognitive beliefs and strategies have to be substituted and practiced.

Clients are guided so that they develop proficiency in the new processes. They need to rehearse by using imagery and modeling.