DEFINITION OF CAREER adminDecember 8, 2018Career Counselling0 Comments 0 FacebookTwitterRedditPinterestEmailThe word car is derived from the French word which means of crack Sometimes we think of our lives as being on a race track Careers are created chiefly in achieving their own personal ambitions to the detected of other things. Normally a career is defined as “an occupation or profession which one trains for and purses as a life work Guralnik, 1980, 2141 Arthur Harland Lawrence 1989 define cant as the moving one of a person’s work experience over time and show that different disciplines in the social sciences can be used to view the concept. Kanchir (1991 points out that life-long chances are disappearing People change careers a number of times during their lifetime. A combination of psychological and sociological factors affect how and when career change takes place. The changes in family structure the death, divorce, the empty nest and separation have forced individuals to examine their values, and chances People are also living long. The change in family roles dual-care couples, ME Mom households and the like has affected the career decisions. CAREER COUNSELING OF MIDDLE SCHOOL CHILDREN AND JUNIOR HIGH STUDENTS A n important transition period for students in the end of childhood and A the beginning of adolescence. These students are moving from elementary school to middle school and are required to make decisions about what course they have to take. The educational decisions they make can affect their later vocational opportunities. They need assistance in developing decision making skills. They need to work on increasing their vocational awareness and exploring and planning for their future Career education during this period focuses more on career and educational awareness, exploration, and tentative CHARACTERISTICS OF MIDDLE SCHOOL CHILDREN As parents and teachers know, this age group possesses limitless energy, among a number of other characteristics. At grades five and six, girls tend to be taller than boys and experience their growth spurt just before the event of puberty. They usually begin their growth spurt about 2 years earlier than boys. The average age at which American girls reach menarche is between 12 and 13. Boys reach puberty on the average at 14. Sex-typing becomes more marked during this period. Students are gaining more personal independence as well as the ability to think and reason at higher conceptual levels. They grow less self-centered and proceed through stages of moral development from conventional to post conventional morality. The physical growth spurt, or lack of growth, may influence their self-concept development. They have begun to develop body control, strength, and endurance. They want to make decisions, assume responsibility, take initiative, and have independence regarding activities they see as important. DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS The Carnegie Task Force on Education of Young Adolescents (1990) identified five characteristics that they want every young adolescent to know, to feel, and to be able to do: Become an intellectually reflective person Be en route to a lifetime of meaningful work. be a good citizen. Be a caring and ethical individual Be a healthy person. Havighurst (1972) identified 10 developmental tasks that span across adolescence. The list includes the same themes as the Carnegie report but adds additional social and psychological tasks such as achieving new and more mature relations with peers of both sexes, accepting one’s physique and using the body effectively, and achieving a masculine or feminine social role. Overall, the developmental tasks relate to changing cognitive, social, emotional, and physical self of students in this age period. They are expected to develop internal locus of control, to be guided by intrinsic rewards and demonstrate a degree of personal and social responsibility. Early adolescents are expected to develop and use decision-making skills and have the ability to plan. Cognitive Development Early adolescence marks the movement from the concrete operational stage to the formal operational stage. In the formal operational stage adolescents demonstrate the ability to think about possibilities, to think ahead, to think about thoughts, and even think beyond limits as well as to think about plans to solve problems rather than the use of trial-and-error learning (Keating, 1980). The transition from one stage to another might not take place abruptly. It may be characteristic of the individual’s thinking in one subject but not another. Some individuals never achieve the full progression to the formal stage of operations even when they are in college. Traditionally, the following is thought: Girls tend to excel in verbal ability and boys tend to excel in visual-spatial ability and mathematics. Boys exhibit more aggressive behavior than girls. Block (1976) found evidence that boys are better at solving insight problems than girls, are more dominant, and have stronger self-concepts than girls. Girls tend to be more fearful and compliant than boys. Early adolescents tend to become egocentric again and use their new cognitive skills to analyze themselves in an introspective fashion. They project this interest in introspection to their peers and this causes them to be self-conscious. The morality of cooperation, that is, the stress on agreements, is important to early adolescents. They also begin to understand that they might have to make allowance for intentions and see how their actions influence other individuals. The important goal of this period is for individuals to establish a sense of identity. If individuals are unable to come to an understanding of themselves, the lack of identity leads to role confusion. The search for identity is not often resolved during early adolescence but at a later age. What adolescents want to do and who they are are questions they start to try to resolve. Sullivan (1953) felt that the significant others in our lives help shape our personality. Peers become more important than do parents or other adults in the early adolescent period. A friend of the same sex becomes an important figure going into puberty. Most adolescents fall into Seaman’s (1980) level 3, the mutual perspective taking. Adolescents become able to develop points of view that take all individual perspectives into account. They are able to see themselves and others as if they were a third person. They are limited in their interpersonal understanding because they are able to integrate only those perspectives they have experienced and may develop one-sided views of social life. Lynch and Lynch (1991) described middle childhood as the period when individuals focus on developing idealized self-concept rules. This period is labeled the idealized self. Rules for setting expectations and standards are set The period from 12 to 18 years is labeled the empathic self. Rules for social interactions, social acceptance, independence, ego-identity, and sex-orientation are being developed. Career Development Ginzberg (1972) has identified the age between 11 and 17 as the tentative period. This stage is divided into four stages: interest, capacity, value, and transition. Children initially consider what they like to do and are interested in doing. They realize that they have to take into consideration their aptitudes because there are some things they can do more skillfully than others. Next, they develop an awareness that there are some activities that have more extrinsic or intrinsic value than others, and they include this value factor in the decisions they make or think about making. They start to consider their interests, aptitudes, and values in their vocational decisions. The interest stage evolves around ages 11 and 12; the capacity stage, between 12 and 14. The value stage follows and is usually during middle or late adolescence. The transition stage is the last part of the tentative period and occurs approximately at age 18. Early adolescents approach the tentative stage in Super’s (1980) model. They are still in the growth stage in which they are exploring their interests and their aptitudes. The students in this age period will be making some important career and educational decisions, developing the discipline of work, and acquiring respect for others and the work they do.